Kore is made for the XBOX-family of wired controllers only. You may be able to play the game with a wired PS3 controller or with bluetooth Android controllers. But the PS3 controller might have issues and Android bluetooth controllers are pretty much hit and miss. Buying the game for anything but an XBOX controller is at your own risk.



Kore is being processed at Google Play, awaiting release within 3-24 hours. The support for JXD S7800 was cut, so the game is only meant for use with the XBOX-family of controllers. Kore is a Galaga-style space shooter with lots of enemies, enemy bullets and power ups. It is controlled with the D-PAD(left, right) and uses the “A” button for firing and the “B” button for shield burst. Shield Burst is an important mechanic in the game; use it to force move through dense bullet curtains or enemies.

Any questions, feel free to contact me.



In 1993 The X-Files hit the air. The show was one of the defining moments of my (media) life, right from the first “nobody down here, but the FBIs most unwanted”-statement from Fox Mulder, one of the best personalities in any show/movie ever. Mulders somewhat reclusive nature sat well with me at the time, and still does. The show was brillantly shot, had nice framing and the use of shadows was excellent.
They say perceptions alter over time, but X-Files has always been special to me. I especially like the “monster-of-the-week” – episodes, and I still buy into a lot of the overlying story arch.

In the mid-to late 90’s I started buying the show on LaserDisc. There were two episodes on each disc, and the price was 48USD(converted from 315DKK), but then you also got a collectors card! You can collect them all. I still have all the LaserDiscs!
Later the show would hit DVD. This is where I start to get annoyed. The show is shot on 35mm from day one, and like Star Trek: the next generation, all effects was created on video. This means, that if you want to make a new print from the 35mm original, then you have to redo all the special effects. This, of course, does not include practical effects which was made in real-life. But something like the worm from ‘Ice’ would have to be redone, unless you still have the CGI worm and can superimpose it on the new transfer.

There is also the issue with format. 35mm is 1.33:1(4:3), so either they shot it open-matte(the whole area) or they used anamorhic lenses. I doubt this, though they used it for the movies to get the 2.35:1 ratio. If they shot it open matte, and they want it to be 16:9 widescreen, they need to reframe the show. This could mean that they crop the top and bottom to force the aspect ratio. All this brings up the concept: why should everything be 16:9 ? In the old days, you chose the aspect ratio from what you wanted to do; in Taxi Driver you have 1.66:1, which is very narrow and claustrophobic. Ben Hur is very wide to get the sweeping widths of the scenery. This 16:9 standardization, one-size-fits-all is problematic. However, if you want the X-Files in HD and all the bells and whistles, 16:9 is the price you pay for sanctuary.

Then there is the issues with IPs (intellectual property). Sure, Night of Living Dead(1968) is public domain, so I can make a game from it, right? Yes, you can, but does that mean that you are allowed to use the actors faces? or the music? Some X-Files episodes in 1993 may have been easy going on these terms, and that could have been kosher back then or nobody cared. Nowadays the landscape may have changed. Look to Nintendo and Disney to see how fiercely they are protecting their IPs. As an example, Segas excellent game, Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing names Sonic before Sega! In the, even better, follow-up game, Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed, they removed the Sega name completely. Their IP, Sonic, is better known than the company name.

I understand that not all people love X-Files like I do; and I understand that Star Trek: TNG is better loved, and will sell a lot better. But it was still hard to watch TNG getting all the nice releases.

So let us get on with the comparison. I have chosen one my favorite episodes of the show, season 1’s excellent John Carpenter’s The Thing rip-off, titled “Ice”. I will take screenshots from the HD 1080p version and the standard definition .mkv version. The episode in 1080p is weighing in at a whopping 3GB and the lesser SD is at 500MB.

In the beginning of the episode Mulder, Scully and the rest of the group is standing at the airport. First, we have the SD version(rescaled to a lower resolution, to fit the page, click image for full resolution):




And the same shot(roughly) in 1080p(rescaled to a lower resolution, to fit the page, click image for full resolution):


As you can see in the images, they did in fact crop the top and bottom of the original 35mm frame. This makes me cringe, since that means that you are losing information to get 16:9. However, if you look at the sides, you can see that there is a lamp post on the right and you see more of the blue tank on the left. This means that they didn’t use the complete 35mm frame width when sourcing the show to video. You gain information in the sides and lose information in the top and bottom.

I have created a superimposed image. it is not very precise, but will give you the gist. The red box is the 4:3 version, the green is the 16:9 version. You end up losing image in the 16:9 version, but to no great extent. No cinematographer would have a problem with losing such a small amount of picture information. Keep in mind that the frame doesn’t have to be cropped in that exact spot every scene: you could choose to just cut the bottom, for example, if you wanted to show the nice window in the image below.



The next images show the Alaska station. The HD version is more than just reformatting and sharper images. It seems like there has been an effort to improve shadow detail, it looks like a gamma boost has been used. Note how sharp the text is; i cannot figure out if the text is redone. It probably is, with the same font.

SD – click for large image.


HD – click for large image.



Mulder and Scully comparison. Again, click the images for full resolution:



Final verdict:

I could state my opinion. But I won’t. I will state the correct answer, which is an universal truth: The 1080p 16:9 edition of The X-Files is the better one. Whether you are new to the show or an old war horse, this is the best thing that could happen to The X-Files. The new transfer from the original 35mm is gorgeous, upping the shadow detail without losing black, amazing sharpness and incredible color reproduction. There is also a slight amount of beautiful film grain.
I have seen “Ice” countless times, this time I noticed the Black Knight 2000 pinball machine in the background(I owned that machine several years ago). The environment where the drama takes place is lifted to a whole new level.
Bottom line, The X-files is an even better show now.

Thanks for reading.



[pic inside] I have just finished a meeting in which we decided on the terms, creative ideas and technology needed to begin working on a game together. This is the first game that I do as a collaboration. This category will contain all updates over the course of production.


Fonzy visitkort.indd


[pics inside] While the game(KORE) is being designed around the XBOX-family of controllers, it is now possible to play the game with a wired PS3 controller. By wired I mean connected from the PS3 controllers mini-USB port to the Android device. On my devices it was enough to just use a regular USB port on the Android device, but some people may need to use their device’s OTG port. The cable will look like this: (or be comprised of two cables)







Well, since the Android market is very diverse and spanning many different hardware configurations, I have bought a small lot of devices for testing the game. This includes phones, tablets and – most importantly, media players. Not all units are in the picture, since one was used for taking the picture(!) and at least one other was on the road.

The main focus of this game is still media players, since it will absolutely need an XBOX controller.




Kore is moving along nicely. I am beginning to have the final idea of the overall theme of the game in my head, and I really hope for a release on Google Play this summer(if all goes well). I want the game to be an arcade-style space shooter, but with a lot of enemies and awesome power ups. I don’t have a lot of time to work on it these days, due to exams etc., but I will get into high gear soon.






This is just a reminder – that might be applicable only to people in my neck of the woods. I do not, under any circumstances, work on other peoples property. Be it arcade or pinball or whatever. I will never work on projects that are not my own.  Also, I refrain from offering advice to anyone.

I do not rent/lend out machines to anyone, either. There is only one outcome, and that has always cost me money and time, or has – on occasion – ended in threats. Because of this, I am not part of the ‘arcade/pinball-community’ in any shape or form. I cannot help you with anything.


I have been a life-long fan of video games, from the early computers and arcade games to the modern systems (PC mostly). Several years ago I began making my own games, which drove me to make my own arcade game, Sonic: Rise of the Hedgehog. The game uses a CRT monitor, has coin input and features a flasher that goes off on the control panel when you are close to a secret on the screen.

I have a BSc in biotechnology from the University of Copenhagen, and I am in the process of obtaining my master’s degree. The master’s degree will be in biotechnology or food technology, since I have courses from both.

In my spare time, I develop games etc. for Android and Windows.

Feel free to contact me!




List of my courses at the University of Copenhagen and DTU:

  • Mikrobiologi (LBIF1014E)
  • Advanced Course in Microbiological Food Safety (SLEK160001)
  • Mikrobielle interaktioner (SBIB10140E)
  • Mikrobiel fødevaresikkerhed (SVEB10402E)
  • Fødevaremikrobiologi (LLEA10274E)
  • Dairy Microbiology (NFOK14026E)
  • From Gene to Function in Pathogenic Bacteria (SBIK10182E)
  • Food Enzymes and Applications (NFOK14021U)
  • Naturstofkemi og mikrobiologi (LKEB1011E)
  • Molekylær genetik (LBIF10184E)
  • Introduktion til bioteknologi (LBIB10172E)
  • Cellebiologi (LBIB10125E)
  • Biokemi 1 (LKEB10077E)
  • Sygdomslære og farmakologi (LLEB10215E)
  • Almen kemi for biovidenskab (LKEB10108E)
  • Organisk kemi for biovidenskab (LKEB10109E)
  • Fødevarekemi (NFOB14027U)
  • RĂĄvarekvalitet (LLEF10240E)
  • Matematik og databehandling (LMAB10066E)
  • Introduktion til menneskets ernæring (LLEB10265E)
  • Meat Technology and Packaging (NFOK15013E)
  • Diagnosis of Diseases of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants (LPLA10384E)
  • Fødevaregrundkursus (LLEB10270E)
  • Fødevarevidenskabsteori (LLEB10244U)
  • Fødevareproduktionsprocesser (23715 DTU)
  • Fødevarefysik (NFYB14030E)
  • Bachelor Thesis in Biotechnology
  • Yeast Physiology and Applications (NFOK14002U)
  • Hygiejnisk Design i Fødevareindustrien (23521 DTU)
  • Fødevareteknologi (23711 DTU)
  • Control of Foodborne Microorganisms (LLEK10219U)
  • Statistisk Dataanalyse (LMAB10069U)
  • Thematic Course in Food Science and Technology (NFOK16003U)
  • Food Quality Management and Control (NFOK15011U)
  • Food Processing (NFOK17001E)


I got this Meteor in very bad condition(!), and through a lot of work it is soon ready for prime time. A very pretty game that will go well with my Xenon and Bally Star Trek. Yes, I am partial to 70’s science fiction themes.

The machine is, of course, based on the 1979-movie Meteor with Sean Connery and Natalie Wood.





It has been a while since I have written anything about my Android-project. I have stated earlier that I wanted to make a game using touchscreen controls, since these are inherent to 99% of all Android devices. However, I could not cope with that kind of control, and I have decided to target players that has a controller for their device. This, of course, rules out almost everybody sans the people using one of the plentiful Android media players and have a USB controller. Moving away from touch controls and adapting controller-use makes my product feel more honest.


I have bought/had in advance several Android devices for testing my game, units include: 3-4 Android media players, phones, Yinlips, JXD S7800. Also, I have not *really* started testing for controllers yet. I do have several XBOX360 controllers(original and 3rd party), a XBOX original(first XBOX console) and several other non-xbox generic controllers. Some extremely cheap. My goal is to make the game nice to control, even with 5USD chinese controllers. This will go hand in hand with the XBOX’s lousy d-pad. You will use the d-pad for the game, but since Kore only has left/right (like Galaga/Space Invaders etc) the d-pad is more than good enough. *in the end, Kore might only accept XBOX-controllers)*

So far, I have several power-ups working and four levels. The levels(stages) are short and fast. This means that starting over won’t be a drag. I am aiming for large amounts of enemies and a power up ‘system’ that will make the player feel like he/she is extremely powerful.

It is no secret the upon receiving my Android-units and testing many games from Google Play, that I am amazed at the complete lack of good games. Even games that offers themselves to be controller-based games aren’t really. How an OS as competent as Android, on hardware as strong as it is, cannot produce great games is beyond me. I have tried platformers, shooters, racers, all either really bad or bad with a totally suspect in-app purchases-system. This is from small companies as well as the likes of Namco.

I am not saying Kore will be something special; I will, however, say that it will be made with these goals:

1) working with a controller
2) no in-app purchases
3) arcade-style gameplay

Part 1 – debunking other peoples work, as I would like to be debunked

I saw this video from TNT amusements:

As you can see, they swapped the CRT for an LCD. They use a converter board to get the 15kHz to 31kHz and in that process scale the image in the converter and in the monitor(1280*1024). They did this for one of their customers. I am unsure as to the result of this operation, mostly due to these statements made in the video:

1) They will install a brand new LCD monitor
2) They claim the image is crisp and clear.
3) They offer it as a service

So, I went and found that exact LCD monitor, the same converter PCB and since I do not own a Moon Cresta PCB, I used my Frogger which uses the same resolution.


The Dell monitor is from 2006. This is somewhat old in LCD terms. I got the monitor for 10 USD. Like my SCI project below, it has a resolution of 1280*1024 and a ratio of 5:4. The converter board does not output in this resolution, so you have to choose one of the available resolutions in the menu and then let the monitor scale that to its native resolution. This can have drastic effects on the image quality, especially in games with thin 1 or 2 pixel lines. These can jerk around when they disappear and reappear as they move.

The monitor itself is extremely slow and is rated at 25ms. I know these values are highly subjective, but the number is from the manufacturer’s own specs. I tried running Terra Cresta on it, to see what a scrolling game would look like. Results are jerky movements and tearing.




Running this test I got pretty nice colors. The picture quality was overall okay, but a little soft. Nothing that I would have a great problem with. However, the excessive blurring of moving elements is completely unacceptable. The frog(or ship in Terra Cresta) is completely blurred out when in movement. When it comes to Moon Cresta I suspect that the black background and being a fixed shooter will combat tearing but then again, bright space ships against a dark backdrop must look horrible when moving.

Here is a short video, please note this is recorded of the screen. Keep your eyes on the ship.

Since there are two parts to this setup, the converter and the monitor, I have tried another LCD monitor with the converter. In this case, an LG 22″ TV. The results were far better, but still not great. Installing an LCD screen in your arcade demands a fast monitor. These days 16:9 screens are 99% of the market, but there are still a bunch of 5:4 1280*1024 monitors being made, mostly for business and writers. These monitors go for about 200USD. One can only wonder what the image quality would be like if one of these(5 ms or lower) has been installed in the Moon Cresta from the video.
I tried the setup one last time with my 27″ AOC LCD monitor which is stated as having a response time of 2ms, and it is leaps and bounds better than the two other monitors.

My final conclusion is: The setup seen in the TNT video is completely unacceptable. I would have a hard time finding anyone who would think this image quality is OK. You need to find a fast LCD monitor for this to work, and it probably will never look right with a game like Moon Cresta. The monitor used by TNT is unsuited for any kind of gaming.



Part 2 – scaling at its best…doubling (or the like)!

First of all: I know this will be frowned upon by many readers. But please try to follow my thoughts. Maybe it is possible to implement an LCD monitor in a classic arcade machine, in this case my Special Criminal Investigation(SCI from here on out). I got this machine years and years ago, with graphics problems. At that time I did not know anything about PCB repair and while SCI is an okay game, I like the prequel, Chase HQ, a lot better. So, I decided to remove the original PCB and use PC emulation. The inside of the cabinet never got to that point of tidiness that I like, so recently I decided to go back and give it an overhaul.

This is when I decided to give the LCD idea a try. I have always been a ‘CRT-guy’, not from arcades really, but from CRT projectors. I still use a Marquee CRT projector daily, and the choice of changing a tube monitor to a flat panel does not come easy. But these days I try to keep a more open mind than I used to.

Going into this project I had some concerns/demands/wishes. Let me put them in a bullet point list.

1) No stretching of the image in any way.
2) How will rescaling be done, and can it be acceptable?
3) Lower total-weight of the machine
4) Less heat
5) Less reliance on old parts, especially dangerous parts

The first point mentions stretching. I have a Cruis’n World (with the original CRT), and I see a lot of people put 16:9(1.78:1) TV’s in their driving cabinets. When these guys do this, they stretch the image from 4:3(1.33:1) to 16:9(1.78:1) which is 100% unacceptable to me. If they do not strecth the image, the image will probably be smaller than the original monitor due to the format and width of machine. I remember of friend of mine having a Sega Model 2 cabinet(I think), in which he put a vertical 16:9 LCD. He turned on Galaga while I was there, and it was horrible, just horrible. The problem is, you cannot get 4:3 LCD monitors in these sizes.

SCI and Chase HQ run 320×240 resolution. The 5:4(1.25:1) LCD monitor I ordered have a resolution of 1280×1024. This works out awesome, since 1280/320=4 which gives perfect scaling. No guessing, just multiply by 4. On the ‘line’-side(to stay in old-land), the game has 240 lines. 1024/240 = 4.27 which is not very even scaling. But if we instead do this: 240*4 = 960 then we get perfect scaling again, but leaving a small black bar in the top and bottom of the screen, which also gives you the 4:3 picture! And that is it! It cannot be better than this. Imagine off-scaling like this: You have two lines, one is black the other is white. Scale that to three lines; you have to flip a coin to decide if the third line should be black or white. Doing even scaling, no guessing is required.

I weighed the items. The CRT + chassis came in at 15.5kg, the LCD at 3.5kg. This makes the already insanely heavy cabinet 12kg lighter. I have not accounted for the Hantarex US250 power supply in the bottom yet, which is, of course, also gone.

I know that nobody has been injuried greatly from the anode cup or otherwise, from working on CRT chassis. However, these CRT pcbs are getting older and older, maybe pushing 25+ years. Also, how many people have worked on the chassis before it reaches you? Should this be cause for concern, or at least cause for concern for the next guy when you have worked on it?

All these points lined up, and I took the plunge. I am not the type of guy that forces himself to like something just because he has it, so I will be completely honest.

Image quality:
Very, very nice. Nice strong colors and good blacks(CRT-guy, remember?). Does the image actually warrant an ‘upgrade’ from CRT to LCD? No, they are on par. Colors and precision goes to the LCD, slightly. Everybody will love the image from the LCD.

I get a bit worried with myself about my connection with curved CRT’s in arcades. I just expect to see that curved screen when I stand near an arcade machine. It is not bad on the SCI, but on more classic machines, it really pops out at me. Not in a horrible way, but just a gut feeling that something is wrong. I once saw a picture of an arcade machine with an LCD running Pac-man, and my mind could not handle seeing the maze un-curved. It looks absolutely crazy, but it is, of course, right. The maze should have perfect geometry. Of course a picture should be flat, and CRT TV’s in homes has been flat from the mid-90’s. That is 20 years! However, not all cabinets will look right with an LCD. I think that older machines with the screen almost lying down, and the graphics bezel ‘try’ to surround the picture, but fail because of the curve. Would such a game, like Galaga, be so bad if the LCD was all the way up to glass and going to the sides of the bezel? This is more difficult on games where you have the glass close to the players face.

Picture of SCI with LCD.


I also need to address the problem of changing a CRT for another CRT. You can get into a lot problems with a new tube. I think about that plastic bezel that often surrounds the tube, and follows the curve of that exact tube. I have tried several times where I needed to discard the plastic bezel after a tube swap.

So, can my SCI project be translated to other games? Well, that depends. I saw a Youtube video where a couple of guys put an LCD in a Moon Cresta. Now, being a PC monitor, it starts at 31kHz but the game board is 15kHz. The resolution of Moon Cresta is 256×224 and the monitor is 1280×1024. 1280/256 = 5 and 1024/224 = 4.57. Pretty uneven scaling. So, let us do as before and use 4. 256*4 =1024(of the 1280) and 224*4 = 896. This will leave black bars all around the image, and it will not be doable in their setup. What they do is: They use a converter that takes the 15kHz RGBS from the original PCB and outputs 31kHz VGA(RGBHV). At the same time, it scales the image, but the device does not have the resolution of the LCD. This means that they scale the image in the converter and then again in the LCD. I would love to see how that image looks in real life. *I have one of these converter units on order to test it*

The main question must be: one of these years I am going to get a Galaga. My favorite game of all time. Could I put an LCD in that? No, I could not. I think Galaga would suffer a lot from off-scaling. If Galaga was 320×240, like SCI, then maybe! But it is not. These games with very fine, straight lines do worse compared to games like Out Run and maybe Neo Geo games. But for games that has resolution that you can multiply up, think about it! Consider it.

As a final note, I also feel that some games deserve to be kept original more than others. Donkey Kong is more a piece of arcade history than SCI. Same goes for Galaga compared to Cruis’n World. I love Cruis’n, but it is really just a racing game. And what about the future? Maybe when OLED TV’s comes about, we can have those curved since they use no backlighting, like LCD uses fluorescent or LED to light up the panel.


Picture of free space where the CRT used to live.

After about eleven months, today is the day I finish my arcade game, Sonic: Rise of the Hedgehog. I started the project to make the first danish arcade machine. The scope of the project went way above what I had in mind. I have spent countless hours sitting in front the computer making the game. The cabinet(or hardware) side of things was a lot easier, but both put together was, in hindsight, way too much for a one-man project. But I did it.

I will give an overview of the process below. It will be with the oldest lowest and the newest at the top. Looking back, everything is a blur. A blue blur(!).


Video of the attract mode:

– August 22 2014

Made a small digital flyer for the game:


– Late August 2014

Sent off the hi-rez front art for printing. Turned out great!


– Late July 2014

The poster on the right went up when the project began. The sun is a harsh mistress.


– Late July 2014

Control Panel all done. The colours might change later. I also almost finish the game’s RUSH MODE.


– Early July 2014

I finish the ULTRA-UPDATE video:

– Late June 2014

Testing the game on a normal TV with a XBOX controller.


– Late May 2014

Finishing the artwork for the marquee, getting it printed. Also started on Zone 2, which is space-themed.

– Mid May 2014

First draft of the indicator for the control panel:

– Early May 2014

Arcadeheroes.com mention the progress with the game again.


– Late April 2014

I finish the I/O interface. This will take inputs from the control panel to the PC and it will drive the lamp on the control panel. This is for when Sonic is close to a secret in the game.

Also, testing gfx that end up not being used.


– Late April 2014

This is the event horizon point. This is where there is progress in strides. Now I have invested so much time into this project that I have to finish it.

I set the title to Sonic: Rise of the Hedgehog. I release the GIGA-UPDATE, a video that covers progress on the game:



– Late March 2014

After fixing the monitor in the cabinet I was ready for the first test, running the early draft of the game on the cabinet. At this point the game is running at 480p 60fps.


– Early March 2014

I get the donor cabinet. Working with wood is another of my shortcomings.
You can see the classic Sonic poster on the wall. This is what I call method-coding

– Early February 2014

Arcadeheroes.com runs the news of ROTH being developed:


– Late December 2013

Finished the first intro screen with controllers for coin inputs and start.

– Late November 2013

Working title is set to Sonic: Ring Master/Untitled. Also, I make the game to run with several layers of parallax scrolling.

– Mid November 2013

I decide that my game has to be 60fps at a resolution of 640x480p 31kHz. Since I wanted to the game to be FAST and PRECISE I needed peak performance for the twitch gameplay.

I also make my first test joystick, using a NES Advantage:


– Early November 2013

Working on platforms. You cannot have a platforming game without moving platforms, right? So, I start making platforms that move up and down. Making games really amazes me with the amount of different ways to do stuff.


– Late October 2013

I begin coding the game. Since sprite drawing and artwork is not within my capabilities, I ‘borrowed’ Sega’s graphics, hook, line & sinker. My original plan was to make a high-res game where the camera is placed far from the action. This can be seen on the below screenshot. I have always loved a pulled-back view, but both my wife and a couple of early followers of the project frowned at this. Also, opting to use an arcade monitor forced me closer to the action. This is the first compromise.


I am working on a project, that gives me the chance to document some data regarding different lamps used for pinball machines. The lamps used are incandescent(regular) 44s and Cointaker frosted cool white LEDs. LEDs equivalent to the Cointaker should give similar results. I chose Cointaker since it is what I use myself.

Version 4 final. Updated January the 6th 2015.

1. Power consumption

Standard 555/44 incandescent bulb. Used for inserts and GI:

Running as CPU controlled(+5V) these draw 0.2 A.
The wattage is 5*0.2 = 1W

Running as GI(+6.3V) they draw 0.24 A
The wattage is 6.3*0.24 = 1.5W

Cointaker 555/44 LED cool white. Used for inserts and GI:

Running as CPU controlled(+5V) they draw 0.02 A
The wattage is 5*0.02 = 0.1W

Running as GI(+6.3V) they draw 0.05 A
The wattage is 6.3*0.05 = 0.3W

2. Temperature measurements

Using a standard 44 incandescent bulb and a Cointaker frosted LED 44 for measurements. The thermometer was placed at the very tip of both subjects. I will make measurements regarding the heat build-up and the heat decay when turned off. Possible error sources are the thermometer itself which needs to be heated and cooled. However, this is the same for both subjects. Seen in relation to each other, it should cancel out.

First, here’s a graph with four lines, two tests for the incandescent and two tests for the LED. This is to see how each behave as both GI and feature(6.3V and 5V)

The graph shows a radical difference between the incandescent and the LED. You can see that all protrude from the same point on the Y-axis. This is the room temperature(23.4 C) when measuring on the desk. The feature(5V) LED almost doesn’t deviate from this value. At the other end, the incandescent(6.3V) is almost at 44 C. Looking at the graph one can tell that there is huge difference between the subjects.

Going to the heat decay time graph(below). This is to show how long it takes for the bulb to reach the room temperature again, when turned off. As seen in the graph above, this is 23.4 C.

I have omitted the two LED tests. Their heat build up was too low to include here or even worry about. Looking at the graph you can see that it takes 12 minutes for the incandescent(5V and 6.3V) to return to room temperature. Being a little more fair, it takes about 3-4 minutes for most of the heat to disperse.

3. Light output, relative

Now let us look at the light output differences between the standard 44 incandescent bulb and the cointaker frosted LED. I have measured using the lux from each subject at both voltages(6.3V and 5.0V). Lux is the SI-standard for measuring illuminance. Since these sources(the incandescent and the LED) are at different places in the x, y, z – plane of a pinball machine, with some being hidden, some being under inserts and all of them being at different distances from the player it would be futile trying to measure the real scalar value of one of these. On top of this, pinball machines are being played in rooms that are lit. This means that the light output from the pinball machine would add almost no light to the room. Therefore, I have chosen to do the measurements of each bulb/LED and voltage in a dark room using a luxmeter at a set distance from the bulb/LED mounted in a 44 socket. Doing this gives me values that are unusable except when looked relative to each other. Here is a graph of the measurements:

As can be seen on the left half of the graph, the luxmeter read 250(no units) for the cointaker frosted LED, and 120(no units) for the 44 incandescent. This shows that the LED has double the output of the incandescent. The same go for the right side of the graph. Again, the LED doubles up. This must mean something when LEDs are used as inserts and you play in a well-lit room.
Possible errors/neglects in the above graph and statements can be that LED doesn’t generally spread the light around as well as incandescents. The lux measurements are made from the front, where the LED is stronger than it is from the sides. However, since it has double the output from the front and the LED is frosted, I will make the bet that the LED is better(higher output) from the sides as well. Keep in mind that colored LEDs take a dive in light ouput! (the same goes for incandescents)

4. Light output comparison between different colors, relative

I have measured the standard frosted LED against its colored counterparts. I wanted to see how much light output is lost to get color. The result are in the graph below. I have included an incandescent as well.

As earlier the numbers means nothing. They are just the numbers from the light measurement at a set distance. Only the comparison is valid. If we look at the white frosted compared to the red frosted, the light output is cut 60%. The other colors are in the same league, with orange being cut by 68%. Still, compared to the incandescent, they are still brighter. But this is very uncertain. In this test, the incandescent are 73% dimmer than the white frosted, but in the earlier test the difference was 50%. This is due to incandescent pinball lamps varying a lot in output. So, whether a colored LED is dimmer or brighter than an incandescent is up to chance or testing each for output.


The first power measurement tests means that a standard incandescent bulb uses 5 times as many amps as the Cointaker LED. They produce way more heat and still only half the light output.

Going LED is sure to decrease heat in the cabinet and go softer on the low-grade connectors found in almost all pinball machines. This will also make the boards run cooler. Not to mention mylar lifting above the insert due to the heat creating gasses from the plastic – which in turn will decrease the size of the insert, which will cause it to sink into the playfield.

I have been entertained watching the slow change in pinball-fans. It started out with them never wanting LEDs in their machines. Then it went to “inserts are OK, but not GI”. Guess where it is going next. Yes, the GI as well. Move faster, pinball-fans! You of all people should push for better tech!

There are no valid reasons not to use LEDs!


I have just installed the ADK and countless other files. Now I will be able to develop software and games for Android. First of all, I will begin working on a game especially for that platform. I think it will be using the standard touchscreen controls, even though I am very opposed to a control scheme this lacking. I grew up on arcade games and thus I have great trouble with controls that are not razor sharp. Some people have gamepads for their Android devices and others have units like the JXD S7800 or Yinlips which has d-pad, normal buttons and even analog sticks. Still, I wonder how extremely small the total percentage is, compared to the total number of Android users.

A picture of the table setup. Please note the Ducky Shine 4 keyboard. Everybody should have one.

…and a picture of a test-run; small white blocks that disappear when you touch them. Not very interesting, but at least it works.